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北京大学医学部
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The effects of woodchip- and straw-derived biochars on the persistence of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in soils.

Title: The effects of woodchip- and straw-derived biochars on the persistence of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in soils.
Authors: Muter, Olga1 olga.mutere@lu.lv
Berzins, Andrejs1
Strikauska, Silvija2
Pugajeva, Iveta3
Bartkevics, Vadims3
Dobele, Galina4
Truu, Jaak5
Truu, Marika5
Steiner, Christoph6,7
Source: Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety. Nov2014, Vol. 109, p93-100. 8p.
Document Type: Article
Subject Terms: Biochar
Biodegradation of herbicides
Sorption
MCPA (Herbicide)
Soil amendments
Herbicide content of soils
Sorbent testing
Author-Supplied Keywords: Biodegradation ; MCPA ; Microbial enzyme activity ; Toxicity
Abstract: Sorption and degradation are the primary processes controlling the efficacy and runoff contamination risk of agrochemicals. This study assessed the influence of two biochars, made from woodchips and straw at a pyrolysis temperature of 725 °C and applied to a loamy sand and a sandy soil in the concentration of 5.3 g 100 g −1 sandy soil and 4.1 g 100 g −1 loamy sand soil, or 53 t ha −1 for both soil types, on degradation of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). Soils were spiked with 50 mg MCPA kg −1 soil. In the sandy soil, significantly more MCPA remained after 100 days if amended with straw-derived biochar in comparison to wood-derived biochar. Both biochars types significantly increased urease activity ( p <0.05) after 37 days in the loamy sand soil, but these differences disappeared after 100 days. A root and shoot elongation test demonstrated that the soils containing straw-derived biochar and spiked with MCPA, showed the highest phytotoxicity. Both biochars were found to retard MCPA degradation in loamy sand and sandy soils. This effect could not be explained only by sorption processes due to comparatively low developed micro/mesoporous structure of both biochars shown by BET surface analysis. However, an enhanced MCPA persistence and soil toxicity in sandy soil amended with straw biochar was observed and further studies are needed to reveal the responsible mechanisms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
(Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Author Affiliations: 1Institute of Microbiology & Biotechnology, University of Latvia, 4 Kronvalda Boulevard, Riga LV-1010, Latvia ; 2Latvia University of Agriculture, 2 Liela Street, Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia ; 3Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, 3 Lejupes Street, Riga LV-1076, Latvia ; 4Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, 27 Dzerbenes Street, Riga LV-1006, Latvia ; 5Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, 46 Vanemuise Street, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ; 6BlackCarbon A/S, Barritskovvej 36, 7150 Barrit, Denmark ; 7University of Kassel, Steintr. 19, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
ISSN: 0147-6513 (Sherpa/RoMEO, JCR)
PageCount: 93-101
volume: 109
issn: 01476513
pubdate: 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.08.012
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